Buy Tramadol online without prescription, One needs to revisit the past to understand the present and predict the future. When one does this in the Colombian context of the criminality, violence, illegality, and political corruption created and financed by the AUC, the FARC, and the ELN, it shows a dependable flow of intra-Andean criminal activities. Cocaine processing and trafficking and those who profit from it moved from Perú and Bolivia to Colombia and are now moving from Colombia back to Perú and Bolivia, expanding into Ecuador and Venezuela, and touching off a wave of trafficking, violence, and crime in Brazil, particularly in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Rather than thinking of Colombia as the bulwark against terrorism and criminality in the Andes, the US needs to pay close attention to how Ecuador, Bolivia, 400mg, 450mg, 500mg, 625mg, Perú and Venezuela can serve, willingly or unwillingly, as the places where Colombia’s pinstriped or camouflaged criminals find money and opportunity. They will repeat there what they did in Colombia: subvert national and local governments; threaten US interests; and, continue their operations under the protective eye of law enforcement and government officials.
- Genesis of Colombia’s AUC Paramilitaries and FARC and ELN Guerrillas
- Law 975 – Law of Justice and Peace
- General Demobilization under Law 975 and Its Consequences
- Law 975 and the National Reconciliation Commission – NRC
- Displacement of Paramilitaries and Guerrillas and Threats in the Andes
- Ecuador: The AUC and the FARC
- Perú: Sendero Luminoso and the Cocalero Movement
- Bolivia: Coca and Opium Poppy Cultivation
- Venezuela: Hugo Chávez, New York. Los Angeles, California, the AUC and the FARC
I predict the parapolítica scandal engulfing Colombia will not stop within Colombia. It will expand into and have repercussions throughout Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Nashville-Davidson, Tennessee. Portland, Oregon, and Venezuela.
There are reports of encounters between Colombian paramilitaries and FARC guerrillas (Farcas) in Sucumbios and Carchí, Ecuador’s northern border with Colombia. FARC guerrillas also operate in the coca-growing areas of Perú and Bolivia, fostering, and probably financing, comprar en línea Tramadol, comprar Tramadol baratos, the current cocalero unrest in Perú and public demonstrations in Bolivia’s Altiplano. Colombia claims Chávez facilitates the operations of the FARC within Venezuela’s border region with Colombia and gives sanctuary to Farcas and paramilitaries alike.
Demobilized paramilitaries of the Auto-Defensas Unidas de Colombia – AUC and the Ejército de Liberación Nacional – ELN (Elenos); excarcerated guerrillas from the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – FARC; and the transnational criminal gangs they created, or are establishing, 650mg, 800mg, 875mg, 900mg, are crossing the intra-Andean borders to expand their criminal activities. As they have done in Colombia, they will deepen the corruption of Andean politics, corrode economic performance, undermine democracy, and threaten the interests of the US government and, Baltimore, Maryland. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the long run, the security of US private investment in the Andean region.
Despite claims to the contrary and a 75% approval rating, Alvaro Uribe, Colombia’s President, does not have the political, economic, judicial, and social resources necessary to reintegrate the paramilitaries and guerrillas into law and order. Many do not want to be reintegrated into an uncertain legal and economic future, despite the leniency with which the government of Colombia (GOC) treats the AUCs. Many Colombians do not want the reinsertados (demobilized and relocated AUCs and Farcas) in their backyard or in their businesses, buy Tramadol online without prescription. “Esa chusma no aquí” (“that riff-raff not here”) is becoming a mantra even in the poor communities from which” the AUCs, Austin, Texas, Memphis, Tennessee, Farcas and Elenos arose.
Genesis of Colombia’s AUC Paramilitaries and FARC and ELN Guerrillas
Colombia’s parapolítica phenomenon began long before mid-2006 when AUC’s leaders Salvatore Mancuso, Rodrigo Tovar Pupo (a.k.a Jorge 40), Ramon Isaza, Diego Fernando Murillo (a.k.a Don Berna), and others disclosed the links among them, order Tramadol online c.o.d, Colombia’s political establishment, and private industry leaders in Atlático, Bolívar, Jacksonville, Florida, Columbus, Ohio, Cesar, Magdalena, Antioquia, and the Magdalena Medio region. Paramilitarism began when La Violencia erupted on 9 April 1948, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Las Vegas, Nevada, immediately after the assassination of Liberal leader, Jorge Eliécer Gaitán.
The Liberal and Conservative gangs that murdered across The Llanos (Colombia’s Western Plains) and the countryside in Antioquia, Canada, mexico, india, Huila, Tolima, Cundinamarca, and the Santanderes in the 50s and 60s were the precursors of the paramilitaries. They were doing the killing of their opponents at the behest of, and with the full knowledge of, buy Tramadol online cod, their political leaders in the name of securing peace and rooting out troublemakers with socialist leanings and labor organizers. These gangs spawned the FARC, which spawned the ELN, which spawned the Sicarios of the Medellín and Cali Cocaine Cartels, Australia, uk, us, usa, which spawned the PEPES, which spawned the Convivir (irregular forces created and abetted by the government), which spawned the AUC, which spawned the parapolítica of today. Many members of the law enforcement and intelligence communities, senators, purchase Tramadol online, congressmen, governors, mayors, Buy Tramadol from canada, and members of the legal economic class retained, colluded with, and abetted the illegal activities of all these groups from La Violencia (1948-1962) to today.
Law 975 was enacted to allegedly bring the leaders and regular members of all these groups, or their remnants, buy Tramadol online no prescription, to justice and to bring peace and security to Colombia. Buy Tramadol online without prescription, But it left out those displaced by the violence and malfeasance of these groups.
The AUC, the Farcas, Buy generic Tramadol, the Elenos, and in many cases the GOC’s Armed Forces, displaced an estimated 2 million Colombians from the countryside to the urban centers. Desplazados find neither work nor housing. They must live off charity and soup kitchens. Law 975 extends neither protection nor benefits to them. In addition, the GOC estimates about 30, online buy Tramadol without a prescription,000 Colombians have disappeared in the last 10 years.
Law 975 – Law of Justice and Peace
Many US policymakers and Latin Americanists claim president Uribe is solving the internal security crisis of Colombia by delivering peace and ensuring citizen’s security. According to polls, 75% of Colombians agree.
Many believe Uribe’s Justice and Peace Law (Law 975) is the tool that demobilized the AUC and disarmed them. They claim the law also served to put 59 of their leaders and about 18 of their political allies in jail; others in the political class are likely to follow. The law also authorized the government to seize their assets. Some members of the Ejército Revolucionario Guevarista, Reasons to buy Tramadol online, ERG, a lesser known guerrilla group, are also demobilizing, as are smaller numbers of the Farcas. Cuba is hosting negotiations between Colombia’s government – GOC and Eleno leaders to demobilize under the protection of Law 975.
Uribe credits Law 975 with the initiation of a humanitarian exchange of jailed Farcas for Ingrid Betancourt, a kidnapped former presidential candidate and senator, order Tramadol online overnight delivery no prescription, three US citizens, and others whom the Farcas have kept for years. However, Kjøpe Tramadol online, bestill Tramadol online, it seems France’s President Nicholas Sarkozy is the driver behind Uribe’s softening stance against the Farcas. According to reports in Colombia, Sarkozy insisted on the excarcelation of the Farcas “Foreign Minister,” Rodrigo Granda. In exchange, France would serve as an intermediary in prisoner-exchange negotiations with the FARC. Uribe responded by transferring 150 Farcas to the Chiquinquirá prison to await their release. Many refused Uribe’s offer. Granda is expected to walk out of La Dorada prison on 3-4 June; the rest will walk out on 7 June 2007. That is, if Uribe holds to his promise to excarcerate paramilitaries, købe Tramadol online, αγοράζουν online Tramadol, Farcas, and jailed senators and congressmen in exchange for the “whole truth.” Who can verify what the “whole truth” is remains to be seen.
Uribe and his supporters also claim Law 975 has helped the government reduce crime, buy Tramadol online without prescription. According to Colombia’s Ministry of Defense, Buy no prescription Tramadol online, from 2002 to 2006, homicides decreased from 28,837 to 17,277 (11%); Kidnappings decreased from 1,645 to 646 (60%); and, Detroit, Michigan, San Jose, California, terrorist attacks from 2,883 to 687 (76%). The Ministry of the Interior and Justice claims that “853 tons of cocaine, with an estimated value of US$ 20, Where can i find Tramadol online, 487bn has been seized since 1999.” However, 2007 is showing an alarming increase in homicides, robbers, assaults, and settlement-of-account killings among the demobilized, Tramadol pharmacy, and increased attacks by insurgents on the armed forces and police stations.
General Demobilization under Law 975 and Its Consequences
From 2004 to the end of 2006, the National Police - NP shows 37, Japan, craiglist, ebay, hcl, 077 paramilitaries belonging to the AUC demobilized, surrendered their weapons, confessed their crimes, and were reinserted into government-owned housing and reclusion facilities. During the same period, 5, Tramadol for sale,874 Farcas surrendered under the same protection, as did 1,532 Elenos, Tramadol withdrawal, and 302 members of the ERG.
The NP claims it has the resources to locate, monitor, control, and manage the demobilized throughout the country. It purports to be able to track the daily movements of the reinsertados, rx free Tramadol, and see where they live, with whom they meet, what they do, Tramadol snort, alcohol iteraction, where, and how. It has access to their financial records. The NP, the Ministry of the Interior and Justice, and Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje – SENA developed the study and capacitation courses 49,000 reinsertados received from 2002-2006, buy cheap Tramadol no rx.
Despite these claims of success, one needs to ask, is the GOC putting the fox in charge of the chicken coop? About 5, Purchase Tramadol online no prescription, 000 reinsertados work as government tourist guides and national park guards, at road checkpoints, and as fluvial transit coordinators. But this places them at the preferred location and entry and exit routes for murders, assaults, kidnappings, Fort Worth, Texas. Denver, Colorado, contraband, and drugs and armaments trafficking.
Buy Tramadol online without prescription, If the NP has been as successful as it claims, why have former AUC and guerrilla leaders been able to continue their operations from their minimum or maximum security prisons? Why is there resurgence in gang formation and activities.
The NP itself shows the murder of 439 demobilized members of the AUC due to settling accounts or in the preparation or activation of IED – improvised explosive devices. Police have apprehended “968 AUC in the commission of crimes, Buy Tramadol no prescription, drugs and arms trafficking, extortion, homicide, robberies, and destruction of private property” (www.policia.gov.co), 400mg, 450mg, 500mg, 625mg. It is safe to assume that because these actions annul the benefits of Law 975, the culprits are left to fend for themselves through what they know best: illegality and violence, often in cahoots with law enforcement agents and representatives of the political establishment. Buy Tramadol from mexico,
Faced with proof of their illegal activities while in the minimum security detention center in La Ceja (Antioquia), the government moved Salvatore Mancuso, Jorge 40, Isaza, Don Berna, Tramadol over the counter, and 53 other AUC leaders to the maximum security prison in Itaguí (Medellin). However, there is proof they continue to direct some of the non-demobilized groups, and order assaults, Chicago, Illinois. Houston, Texas, murders, drug trafficking, and money laundering operations.
In public testimony, Mancuso and others have fingered Uribe, where can i order Tramadol without prescription, senators, governors, mayors, San Diego, California. Dallas, Texas. San Antonio, Texas, congressmen, military commanders, ministers, and leaders of private industry as either their allies or supporters. Or minimally as those who knew what the paramilitaries and guerrillas were doing, or gave orders for paramilitary or guerrilla actions, Tramadol samples.
Law 975 and the National Reconciliation Commission – NRC
While the government pays attention to, and, allegedly, extends leniency protection to criminals sympathetic to it, their victims receive little or no reparation, buy Tramadol online without prescription.
The NRC claims there are between 50,000 and 60,000 victims of the AUC. But the Movement of Victims of State Crimes - MVSC estimates direct and indirect victims amount to 10% of Colombians, Tramadol in cats, dogs, children, or 4.2 million. Victims have filed about 15,000 complaints with the Office of the Attorney General. They remain unanswered.
The NRC has neither the resources nor the political clout necessary to force the AUC, the Farcas, and the Elenos to pay financial reparations; nor does it have the personnel or power to enforce restitution of lands and assets illegally appropriated by the paramilitaries and guerrillas. Assets and lands confiscated by the GOC from guerillas and paras must go through a Byzantine legal and regulatory process to determine their disposition by the GOC, 125mg, 150mg, 200mg, 250mg.
Even if the GOC turned lands and assets over to the victims, many are afraid to retake possession. Those who received or purchased assets held by the Medellin and Cali drug cartels met untimely ends or constant harassment from heirs and associates of the cartels, and abandoned the properties. There are hundreds of mansions, Where can i buy cheapest Tramadol online, country homes, stores, and office buildings boarded up or falling apart in Medellin, Bogotá, Cali, Boston, Massachusetts. Charlotte, Carolina, and the countryside. No one will dare touch them.
Many victims and their families who have watched the testimony of AUC leaders on closed circuit TV can expect little in reparation. In most cases they received not even an “I am sorry” from those testifying. Buy Tramadol online without prescription, The same will happen once the demobilization of the Farcas progresses.
Minister of Defense Juan Manuel Santos in an open letter to the NRC on 23 May 2007 proposes a solution to the ineffectiveness of reparation: establish a “true agrarian reform within the framework of an integral agrarian policy” (www.eltiempo.com.co). Tramadol from canadian pharmacy,
However, agrarian reform has a troubled past in Colombia. When the GOC granted land tenure to desplazados, paramilitaries forced them out and took control of the lands. The GOC did nothing to remedy the abuse; the desplazados were left to their own fate. Concurrently, as it was shown, key supporters of the Uribe government in Congress were signing an agreement with the AUC’s leaders in El Cesar and Sucre departments to create a “Nueva Colombia” where paramilitarism would be the policy of the new state. The Ralito Agreement is one of the documents that broke open the parapolitica scandal, order Tramadol from mexican pharmacy. Some of its signatories are in jail. It is likely they will be out soon under the “truth and freedom” provisions Uribe proposes to grant to the leaders of the AUC detained in Itaguí.
Under the Agrarian Reform Law, the GOC bought from the paramilitaries non-arable lands and real estate sometimes at three of four times their market value. Corruption plagued the purchase and allocation of these resources from and to criminals and other miscreants. In the six years since Uribe became president, Farmacia Tramadol baratos, Tramadol online kaufen, ten directors of the Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo Rural – INCODER were dismissed for corruption and collusion with paramilitary and irregular forces. Of the 150,000 hectares up for adjudication, only .03% passed to their former owners in 2006. Many Colombians claim records obtained from the computer of Jorge 40 show that those who receive lands or assets from INCODER are testaferros (front men) for the criminals who stole them in the first place, buy Tramadol online without prescription.
The transfer or allocation of property is done centrally at the office of Enlace Territorial (Territorial Link) that serves the whole country. A single transaction can take about 300 days, if the applicant is lucky and has the right connections. To succeed, the applicant must show he/she has paid up all taxes on the property and has clear title to it. However, notarias (judges’ offices) in rural areas lack accurate record keeping. It is common practice in Colombia to title property to those whose tax liability is low or nonexistent. Therefore, köpa Tramadol online, Osta Tramadol online, Jotta Tramadol verkossa, to establish clear title is murky at best. This creates a vibrant market in documentos chimbos (bought false documents).
Displacement of Paramilitaries and Guerrillas and Threats in the Andes
One needs to revisit the past to understand the present and predict the future. When one does this in the Colombian context of the criminality, violence, Tramadol coupon, illegality, and political corruption created and financed by the AUC, the FARC, and the ELN it shows a dependable flow of intra-Andean criminal activities. Cocaine processing and trafficking and those who profit from it moved from Perú and Bolivia to Colombia and are now moving from Colombia back to Perú and Bolivia, expanding into Ecuador and Venezuela, online buying Tramadol, and touching off a wave of trafficking, violence, and crime in Brazil, Buy cheap Tramadol, particularly in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Rather than thinking of Colombia as the bulwark against terrorism and criminality in the Andes, the US needs to pay close attention to how Ecuador, Bolivia, Perú and Venezuela can serve, willingly or unwillingly, Indianapolis, Indiana, San Francisco, California, as the places where Colombia’s pinstriped or camouflaged criminals find money and opportunity. They will repeat there what they did in Colombia: subvert national and local governments; threaten US interests; and, continue their operations under the protective eye of law enforcement and government officials.
Ecuador, 0.4mg, 0.5mg, 1mg, 2.5mg, Perú, Bolivia, and Venezuela share a history of political instability, political corruption, illegal activities, buy Tramadol without a prescription, economic exclusion, drug trafficking, and money laundering. Where can i buy Tramadol online,
Ecuador: The AUC and the FARC
Consecutive Ecuadorian governments have had proof of drug trafficking and money laundering by Colombians in Ecuador. The bilateral border is porous and poorly guarded. The military and law enforcement forces that operate on the border are paid low wages. Closing their eyes is not only a smart way to protect their lives; it is the thing to do to augment salaries and wages, and gain power, respect, and political influence.
Buy Tramadol online without prescription, As Venezuela is doing in Colombia, paramilitaries and Colombian drug traffickers are supporting sympathetic candidates in municipal and provincial election in northern Ecuador.
Coca is cultivated and cocaine processed in Sucumbios and Carchí. Otavalo is becoming a center of money laundering, 1000mg, 2000mg.
But the most long-lasting effect of the displacement of Colombian paramilitaries and guerrillas into Ecuador is the ecological consequences of aerial spraying of illicit crops on the Colombian side. The wind spreads Round Up® into Ecuador. This will have profound disruptive consequences for an area where agriculture is the main economic activity. If agriculture is destroyed, area residents will, of necessity, El Paso, Texas. Washington, D.C. Seattle, Washington, turn to drug producing and paramilitary protection to make a living.
The UN has found credible proof of the mental and physical damage fumigation of illicit crops cause to the Indian and poor populations on the Ecuadorian side of the border. It has found the same on the Colombian side, but the GOC dismisses the findings. Both sides report adverse consequences on people and livestock: breathing difficulties; skin rashes and lacerations; spontaneous bleeding and vomiting; and, birth defects. Some vegetables and fruit crops have decreased in the border areas, or no longer exist. Fumigated lands are not as productive as they once were.
Uribe said the GOC will pay compensation for any corroborated damage on the Ecuadorian side. But no financial liability will ensue until Ecuador takes Colombia before the International Court of Law and the Court files for Ecuador. This will be a long time in coming. In the interim, Tramadol price, the GOC claims the Ecuadorian’s claims are overblown, but the evidence is there for all who want to acknowledge it. Fumigations in Colombia continue unabated. (Opium poppy growers are also protesting against a Colombia-like fumigation program in Afghanistan.)
Perú: Sendero Luminoso and the Cocalero Movement
Perú was the largest producer of coca paste in the 1970s and 1980s when the guerrillas of Sendero Luminoso protected coca-for-cacaine cultivations and processing laboratories.
Although ex-president Alberto Fujimori eradicated Sendero, he and his government fell prey to corruption and collusion with drug traffickers and money launderers. But the Cocalero Movement Fujimori tried to eliminate lives on, while Fujimori awaits extradition from Chile to Perú to face corruption and murder charges, buy Tramadol online without prescription. 5mg, 50mg, 75mg, 100mg,
For the last 60 days, the cocaleros have been in continuous demonstrations against aerial spraying in the Peruvian Altiplano and against the 1961 Single Geneva Convention. The Convention classifies the coca leaf as a controlled substance, ignoring that 10,000 hectares of cultivation for traditional uses is legal in Perú. Under pressure from the cocaleros, the government of Alan García (GOP) suspended the spraying program going back to manual eradication and slash and burn, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Phoenix, Arizona.
Protesters have also threatened to take over the Camisea natural gas field, the crown jewel of Perú’s energy industry.
The Head of the Council of Ministers, Buy Tramadol without prescription, Jorge del Castillo, will meet with cocalero leaders in Cuzco on 21 June 2007 to address “not only the cocalero claims but the general situation in the province” (www.elcomercio.com.pe). Should negotiations fail, García has promised to bomb the coca plantations.
Failing to stop the protests, García was forced to request executive powers until 31 July 2007 to bring security and stability to Ayacucho, order Tramadol no prescription, Huancavelica, Cusco, and Junín, Acheter en ligne Tramadol, acheter Tramadol bon marché, where remnants of Sendero and drug traffickers work together. García’s Executive Powers mean the abolition of habeas corpus, preventive detention without probable cause, restriction of movement of goods and people, warrantless searches of places of work and homes, denial of the freedom assembly. This is certainly not the way to govern a democracy, and it resembles what Chávez is doing in Venezuela.
However, the militarization of Perú’s countryside is not likely to succeed. This is the approach taken by Colombia and it has not worked. After years of military campaigns, cocaine of the highest purity sells at the lowest price in the world’s markets. This means there is plenty of supply coming out of Colombia and shipped through México.
Bolivia: Coca and Opium Poppy Cultivation
Buy Tramadol online without prescription, While President Evo Morales uses Bolivia’s energy bonanza to pay for nationalized companies and to avert international litigation, Bolivia’s Altiplano, its coca growing areas, remain underserved, poor, with a lack of infrastructure, and teeming with dissatisfaction.
Unlike Colombia and Perú, guerrilla and paramilitary activities are practically nonexistent in Bolivia, so far. However, coca is being replanted higher up in the mountains, and opium poppies are beginning to dot the landscape. Someone will be hired to protect these plantations. Out-of-work paramilitaries and guerrillas from Colombia would be glad to oblige.
At the height of the drug trade in Colombia, members of Bolivia’s armed forces and law enforcement agents paid up to US$50,000 to be assigned to Pando, Beni and Santa Cruz, the heart of the drug trade. Natural gas riches came after that to Santa Cruz, Tarija, and Beni, but the drug traffickers and money launderers did not leave. They are there waiting for the next opportunity.
As demonstrations and stoppages against the government continue almost daily, one needs to ask, who is supporting the impoverished Aymaras who are on the streets and blocking roads? It would not be surprising if the answer is drug traffickers and their associates in Colombia and México.
Like opium poppies, Colombians are again becoming part of the Bolivian landscape. They are not oil or gas prospectors: they are looking for opportunity to expand their Colombian operations into Bolivia. Along with them will come corruption and violence, buy Tramadol online without prescription.
Venezuela: Hugo Chávez, the AUC and the FARC
Few will doubt Hugo Chávez will do what it takes to erode what remains of US influence in the Andes and the rest of Latin America.
Despite Chávez’s claims against corruption and support for anti-drug trafficking and money laundering, they have grown during his government. Isla Margarita is a center of money laundering. Puerto Cabello is a center of contraband of all sorts. Illegality is the stock in trade of the Colombo-Venezuela border; it has been for years. The oil-rich Orinoco Basin offers sanctuary to FARC guerrillas and to AUCs in their pursuit.
Chávez claims Colombian Special Forces, assisted by US Special Forces, cross illegally into Venezuela to conduct military operations against the FARC and remnants of the AUC.
The GOC alleges that Chávez’s followers are participating actively in Colombia’s electoral and political process, and subverting it. It also alleges supposed links between Venezuela’s representatives in Colombia and Colombian officials and lawmakers associated with the AUC and the FARC.
Given that Venezuela is Colombia’s second largest trading partner, the personal connections and distribution routes are well established and can be switched from legal to illegal goods anytime.
Corruption of the political establishment is endemic in Venezuela. As opposition to Chávez increases within Venezuela, it is not farfetched to predict that paramilitarism looks like a promising strategy to stage operations against Chávez in Venezuela. This at a time when several paramilitary leaders in Colombia will be looking for work and expansion of their operations. And when drug traffickers from Ecuador, Perú, and Bolivia will be needing new routes for their product to be shipped to Europe and China, the two fastest growing cocaine markets.
The displacement of Colombian AUC, Farcas, and Elenos to Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, and Venezuela present a serious threat to the US interests in the region. The US needs to pay close attention to it sooner than later.
Until next time. Hasta Luego y Buena Suerte. Até Logo e Boa Sorte.
Maria Velez de Berliner, President, Latin Intelligence Corporation, email@example.com, 001-703-212-8589
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